Sejarah Gambar Umar Al Khattab Masjid dan Menara Jerusalem
Minaret of the Imam `Umar ibn al-Khattab Mosque in the Old City of Jerusalem, Palestine
The Mosque of Omar (Arabic: مسجد عمر بن الخطاب) in Jerusalem is located opposite the southern courtyard of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in the Muristan. After the Siege of Jerusalem in 637 by the Rashidun army under the command of Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, Patriarch Sophronius refused to surrender except to the Caliph Omar (579-644) himself. Omar traveled to Jerusalem and accepted the surrender. He then visited the Church of the Holy Sepulchre where Sophronius invited him to pray inside the Church, but Omar declined so as not to set a precedent and thereby endanger the Church’s status as a Christian site. Instead he prayed outside in the courtyard, in a place where David was believed to have prayed.
The Mosque of Omar was built in its current shape by the Ayyubid Sultan al-Afdal bin Saladin in 1193 CE in memory of this event. It has a 15-meter high minaret that was built before 1465 CE and was renovated by Ottoman sultan Abdulmecid I (1839–1860).
Jerusalem is a city holy to the three largest monotheistic faiths – Islam, Judaism, and Christianity. Because of its history that spans thousands of years, it goes by many names: Jerusalem, al-Quds, Yerushaláyim, Aelia, and more, all reflecting its diverse heritage. It is a city that numerous Muslim prophets called home, from Sulayman and Dawood to Isa (Jesus), may Allah be pleased with them.
During the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ’s life, he made a miraculous journey in one night from Makkah to Jerusalem and then from Jerusalem to Heaven – the Isra’ and Mi’raj. During his life, however, Jerusalem never came under Muslim political control. That would change during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second caliph of Islam.
During Muhammad ﷺ’s life, the Byzantine Empire made clear its desire to eliminate the new Muslim religion growing on its southern borders. The Expedition of Tabuk thus commenced in October 630, with Muhammad ﷺ leading an army of 30,000 people to the border with the Byzantine Empire. While no Byzantine army met the Muslims for a battle, the expedition marked the beginning of the Muslim-Byzantine Wars that would continue for decades.
During the rule of the caliph Abu Bakr from 632 to 634, no major offensives were taken into Byzantine land. It was during the caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab, that Muslims would begin to seriously expand northwards into the Byzantine realm. He sent some of the ablest Muslim generals, including Khalid ibn al-Walid and Amr ibn al-’As to fight the Byzantines. The decisive Battle of Yarmuk in 636 was a huge blow to Byzantine power in the region, leading to the fall of numerous cities throughout Syria such as Damascus.
In many cases, Muslim armies were welcomed by the local population – both Jews and Christians. The majority of the Christians of the region were Monophysites, who had a more monotheistic view of God that was similar to what the new Muslims were preaching. They welcomed Muslim rule over the area instead of the Byzantines, with whom they had many theological differences.
Capture of Jerusalem
By 637, Muslim armies began to appear in the vicinity of Jerusalem. In charge of Jerusalem was Patriarch Sophronius, a representative of the Byzantine government, as well as a leader in the Christian Church. Although numerous Muslim armies under the command of Khalid ibn al-Walid and Amr ibn al-’As began to surround the city, Sophronius refused to surrender the city unless Umar came to accept the surrender himself.
Having heard of such a condition, Umar ibn al-Khattab left Madinah, travelling alone with one donkey and one servant. When he arrived in Jerusalem, he was greeted by Sophronius, who undoubtedly must have been amazed that the caliph of the Muslims, one of the most powerful people in the world at that point, was dressed in no more than simple robes and was indistinguishable from his servant.
The Treaty of Umar
As they did with all other cities they conquered, the Muslims had to write up a treaty detailing the rights and privileges regarding the conquered people and the Muslims in Jerusalem. This treaty was signed by Umar and Patriarch Sophronius, along with some of the generals of the Muslim armies. The text of the treaty read:
In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate. This is the assurance of safety which the servant of God, Umar, the Commander of the Faithful, has given to the people of Jerusalem. He has given them an assurance of safety for themselves for their property, their churches, their crosses, the sick and healthy of the city and for all the rituals which belong to their religion. Their churches will not be inhabited by Muslims and will not be destroyed. Neither they, nor the land on which they stand, nor their cross, nor their property will be damaged. They will not be forcibly converted. No Jew will live with them in Jerusalem.
The people of Jerusalem must pay the taxes like the people of other cities and must expel the Byzantines and the robbers. Those of the people of Jerusalem who want to leave with the Byzantines, take their property and abandon their churches and crosses will be safe until they reach their place of refuge. The villagers may remain in the city if they wish but must pay taxes like the citizens. Those who wish may go with the Byzantines and those who wish may return to their families. Nothing is to be taken from them before their harvest is reaped.
If they pay their taxes according to their obligations, then the conditions laid out in this letter are under the covenant of God, are the responsibility of His Prophet, of the caliphs and of the faithful.
- Quoted in The Great Arab Conquests, from Tarikh Tabari
At the time, this was by far one of the most progressive treaties in history. For comparison, just 23 years earlier when Jerusalem was conquered by the Persians from the Byzantines, a general massacre was ordered. Another massacre ensued when Jerusalem was conquered by the Crusaders from the Muslims in 1099.
The Treaty of Umar allowed the Christians of Jerusalem religious freedom, as is dictated in the Quran and the sayings of Muhammad ﷺ. This was one of the first and most significant guarantees of religious freedom in history. While there is a clause in the treaty regarding the banning of Jews from Jerusalem, its authenticity is debated. One of Umar’s guides in Jerusalem was a Jew named Kaab al-Ahbar. Umar further allowed Jews to worship on the Temple Mount and the Wailing Wall, while the Byzantines banned them from such activities. Thus, the authenticity of the clause regarding Jews is in question.
What is not in question, however, was the significance of such a progressive and equitable surrender treaty, which protected minority rights. The treaty became the standard for Muslim-Christian relations throughout the former Byzantine Empire, with rights of conquered people being protected in all situations, and forced conversions never being a sanctioned act.
Revitalization of the City
Umar immediately set about making the city an important Muslim landmark. He cleared the area of the Temple Mount, where Muhammad ﷺ ascended to heaven from. The Christians had used the area as a garbage dump to offend the Jews, and Umar and his army (along with some Jews) personally cleaned it and built a mosque – Masjid al-Aqsa – there.
Masjid al-Aqsa was originally built by Umar ibn al-Khattab in 637
Throughout the remainder of Umar’s caliphate and into the Umayyad Empire’s reign over the city, Jerusalem became a major center of religious pilgrimage and trade. The Dome of the Rock was added to complement Masjid al-Aqsa in 691. Numerous other mosques and public institutions were soon established throughout the city.
The Muslim conquest of Jerusalem under the caliph Umar in 637 was clearly an important moment in the city’s history. For the next 462 years, it would be ruled by Muslims, with religious freedom for minorities protected according to the Treaty of Umar. Even in 2012, as fighting continues over the future status of the city, many Muslims, Christians, and Jews insist that the Treaty maintains legal standing and look to it to help solve Jerusalem’s current problems.
The square minaret of the Omar Mosque, with a dome of the Christian Quarter in the foreground.
The modest Omar Mosque is was built in the 12th century directly across from the main entrance of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. The mosque is named for the 7th-century caliph Omar, whose actions after his takeover of Jerusalem ensured the Church of Holy Sepulchre remained open to Christian worship.
After a brief and bloodless seige, Muslims seized control of Jerusalem from the Byzantines in February 638. Caliph Omar Ibn al-Khattab accepted the city’s surrender from Patriarch Sophronius in person.
Omar was shown the great Church of the Holy Sepulchre and offered a place to pray in it, but he refused. He knew that if he prayed in the church, it would set a precedent that would lead to the building’s transformation into a mosque. He instead prayed on the steps outside, allowing the church to remain a Christian holy place.
The Omar Mosque was built near the site of these events in 1193 by Saladin’s son Aphdal Ali. The location is not exact, for the entrance to the Church was on the east in Omar’s time; the present entrance was only inaugurated in the 11th century.
What to See
Reached by a short stairway that descends from Christian Quarter Road, it has a distinctive square minaret. The base of the minaret contains some Crusader masonry and was given its present form around 1460. The mosque is open to Muslims only.
Confusingly, the Dome of the Rock on Temple Mount is sometimes referred to as “the Mosque of Omar,” despite the fact that it is not a mosque and was not built by Omar. There is also a small mosque adjacent to the Al-Aqsa Mosque known as the Mosque of Umar, which is on the traditional site of the Caliph’s prayers upon arrival in Jerusalem. It is mostly Ottoman in date.
Location and satellite view of the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem. Using the buttons on the left, zoom in for a closer look or zoom out to get your bearings. Click and drag the map to move around. You can explore all of Jerusalem from space with our Jerusalem Satellite Map.
First Qibla – Bait-al-Maqdis (Al-Aqsa):
AT THE HEART OF JERUSALEM is the Masjid Al Aqsa or Al-Haram Ash-Shareef (The Noble Sanctuary). It is the third most sacred mosque in the world (after Masjid al-Haram in Makkah and Masjid Nabawi in Medinah), enclosing over 35 acres of fountains, gardens, buildings and domes. At its southernmost end is Masjid Al Aqsa, which was re-built by Khalifa Omar Bin Al-Kattab in the year 19 Hijri. At its center is the celebrated Dome of the Rock. The entire area is regarded as Baitul-Maqdis or Al-Qudus and comprises nearly one sixth of the walled city of Jerusalem.
Masjid Al Aqsa in Qur’an is referred to in chapter 17 (surat al-isra), verse 1:
Translation: Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al-Aqsa, whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing.
- Most scholars are of the opinion that Masjid Al Aqsa was first built by Prophet Adam.
- Ibrahim (as) rebuilt the Masjid Al Aqsa in Jerusalem as he and Ismail rebuilt the Ka’ba in Makkah.
- Prophet Daud (as) began the rebuilding of Masjid Al Aqsa.
- It was Prophet Sulayman (as) who finally completed the building of Masjid Al Aqsa.
- Masjid Al Aqsa built by Sulayman (as) was destroyed in 587 BC by Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon.
- The Jews call this same Masjid Al Aqsa built by Sulayman as their Temple.
- The Jews re-built their Temple on them same site in 167 BC but was destroyed in 70 AD and Jews banished from Jerusalem.
- The site of Masjid Al Aqsa remained barren and was used as a rubbish tip for nearly 600 years until the Great Khalifah Umar bin Khattab liberated Jerusalem in 637/8 AD.
- The Khalifah Umar bin Khattab began the foundation of Masjid Al Aqsa and a timber mosque was built.
- The Umayyad Khalifah, Abd’ al Malik ibn Marwan in 691/2 [72/73 AH] began the construction of, Dome of the Rock – today this is the Golden Domed Mosque.
- The al Buraq wall or Western Wall where Prophet Muhammad tied his animal the Buraq on the night journey of al Isra is what the Jews call the wailing wall.
- To Muslims it is the land or the Haram Sharif area which is most holy and important.
- The Haram area of Al Aqsa has within it the Masjid Al Aqsa [Black Domed Mosque] and Dome of the Rock [the Golden Domed Mosque].
- Israel occupied Masjid Al Aqsa in 1967.
- The fundamentalist Jews have made 100′s of attempts to destroy Al Aqsa since 1967 when they occupied it. A fire in 1967 started by their help destroyed the 900 year old Mimbar installed by Slaudeen Ayub, the Great Muslim Hero.
- The fundamentalist want to blow up and destroy Masjidul Al Aqsa and replace it with a Jewish Temple
[The very existence of various Christian as well as Jewish religious complexes up until this day is a clear evidence of the true and sincere adherence the Muslims have shown towards this multi-faith concept mentioned above.]